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Posts Tagged ‘baby’

Gross Motor Milestone (12-18months)

At 12 months

At 12 months, your child may take his very first independent step.  Independent walking is a very important milestone. It represents a new phase of the child’s development, being independent from caregiver and able to explore new things on his own that used to be out of reach. With the new found skill, he will be a more confident baby. He will be constantly challenging his walking and balance skills on different terrians and falling occasionally. It is definitely alright to fall, as no baby can learn how to walk without falling.

As walking balance improves, your child will be able to multitask. He will be able to walk and hold his favourite toy at the same time. He will also be learning to lower himself from standing into sitting position with increasing control.

At 18 months

Your child has been perfecting the basic gross motor skills for the past 18 months and is now ready for more advance skills. He will be able to climb up the staircase with assistance, a step at a time. He will be able to kick a ball in standing, although with a poor sense of direction. He will be able to walk fast, and attempting to run. This is the age that you can introduce your child to a tricycle, or a balance bike.

18 months is usually considered the cut off month for a child learning to walk independently. If your child is still not walking independently at this stage, you may want to seek an expert opinion on your child’s motor development.

  • Gross Motor Milestone Brochure

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

Plagiocephaly

What is plagiocephaly?

Plagio- in Greek refers to ‘oblique’; Cephalad- refers to the head. In combination, the term plagiocephaly refers to a musculoskeletal condition in which there is an asymmetry of the baby’s head, or oblique head, when viewed from the top. This is often accompanied by torticollis (head rotated and/or side tilted) and mandibular hypoplasia (smaller jaw bone on one side).

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

What causes Plagiocephaly

Plagiocephaly can develop while the baby is in the womb (intrauterine) or  after delivery. One intrauterine cause is the lack of space during late stages of pregnancy. The baby’s head may be compressed at one side as a result of limited space, causing a relatively flatter skull on the pressured side. Thus, plagiocephaly is more common during the first pregnancy and multiple pregnancy.

Most plagiocephaly happens after delivery. In 1992, prone lying was identified as a factor that may cause Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As a result of SIDS prevention, parents position their baby on their back for play and sleep. This has successfully reduce SIDS incidence worldwide. However, this also caused many babies to developed pressured spot on their skull while lying on their back, resulting in development of plagiocephaly.

Plagiocephaly is also related to torticollis. Torticollis is a condition where  certain neck muscle is shortened, causing the head to rotate and/or side tilt. This preferential head rotation results in flattening of the skull on the pressured side. Infants with macrocephaly and/or low muscle tone (hypotonia) tend to develop plagiocephaly due to the lack muscle strength to rotate or control head movement. The flattened skull also encourage the child to lie on it even more as it is a position of comfort. As a result, the deformity is maintained.

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

When and how to start tummy time

When should I start my baby on tummy time?

You can start tummy time as early as the first week after delivery. You may want to start with very short practice. For instance, every time after you bath your baby, you can put him/her for a while on the tummy. As long as you child can endure without making much fuss, you can play with him/her on her tummy. Attract the baby’s attention with your voice. Go down to your baby’s eye level. Sing to your baby, talk and touch him/her. All these gesture will reassure your baby that the tummy position is harmless. As your baby grows, the endurance for tummy time will improve. NEVER leave your baby unattended while he is on tummy.

My child really hates tummy time. What should I do?

These are some other methods to promote tummy time:

1. Lying on parent’s chest.

  • parent can lie on the floor, with a pillow behind your back
  • make yourself comfortable because babies can sense your anxiety
  • Place your child on your chest. Talk and sing to him. Baby loves their mother’s voice.

2. Carry your child in the tummy down position. Light swaying accompanied with music or song usually does the trick

3. If you child has poor endurance to tummy time, you can start with a slight incline position rather than fully flat on the bed. You can use a roll of towel to be placed under the chest to help the baby lift up his head. You may want to try this at 2-3months of age when the baby has slightly stronger neck.

Do not give up on tummy time. Your baby will get use to the position with practice. And soon, they will be enjoying it!

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

Gross motor milestones 0-6 months

Newborn

A newborn’s movement is controlled mainly by reflexes. The reflexes include asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR), Moro, rooting, sucking and swallowing reflex.

Due to the position in womb over 40 weeks, a newborn adopts a fetal posture. In lying, the arms and leg are held close to the body. On the tummy, the infant head is turned to one side, the buttocks are humped up and knees are flexed under the abdomen.

3 months old

The primitive reflexes are gradually disappearing while the baby gains more control over their neck and shoulder muscles. When lying on the back, the baby has enough neck strength to hold the head in midline. During pull to sit, there is little or no head lag. The baby is also beginning to understand his body, able move all 4 limbs symmetrically, bringing hands to midline for finger play. When lying on tummy, the baby can lift head and upper chest well off the bed, weight-bearing on forearm with buttocks flat on bed.

6 months old

Over the months, the baby has developed enough trunk and abdomen strength to roll from front toback and back to front. When lying on the back, the baby can raise his head to look at feet and bring the feet to mouth for exploration. At 6 months, the baby start sitting with support, balancing himself with his hands. When held standing, the baby weight bear well on both feet and bounces up and down actively.

 

 


– 0-6 month gross motor milestones pamphlet format

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional/physiotherapist or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

Benefits of Infant Massage

Infant massage gives parents golden opportunity to bond with their child. In the past, stay-home-mother is a norm. However, with the busy city life, staying home to look after children is no longer common. It is normal that both parents in the family are working. More than often, babies are placed in infant care or taken care by home helper. The lack of quality time spend together results in a family without strong bond. Infant massage, as short as 5 minutes, provide parents the golden opportunity to redeem this lack of quality time. Through infant massage, parents will be able to communicate, bond and learn more about their babies.

A lot of parents took up infant massage because they heard about its miraculous effects on constipation and colic (stomach ‘wind’). It is true that a lot of babies do ‘poo’ after a good regime of tummy massage. Babies are also reported to cry lesser due to less colic.

Other benefits include the following:

  • Relief teething discomfort
  • Reduce excessive mucus
  • Soften the skin
  • Assist in muscular development and tone
  • Improve sleep patterns
  • Reduce sensitivity to touch
  • Reorganization of nervous system
  • Improve body awareness
  • Normalizing muscle tone
  • Increase flexibility

 

 

 

 

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional/physiotherapist or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.

Infant Massage for Premature

Infant massage is highly beneficial for premature babies. In fact, (in my opinion) all babies born prematurely should be given infant massage. Hospitals in some countries has infant massage specialist to start massage as early as the intensive care stage. It is proven that infant massage helps increase weight gain in a premature baby.

How is Infant Massage done in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit?

Infant massage in intensive care usually starts with simple stroke or touch, such as placing parent’s hand gently over baby’s chest. As the baby learns and accepts touch, more strokes can be introduced cautiously. During the massage, it is important that the baby does not get over stimulated. Therefore, it is important to be guided by a physiotherapist or healthcare personnel who has the knowledge to recognize signs of stress during the massage.

What other benefit does Infant Massage has on premature babies?

Infant massage can help premature babies by stimulating their senses. Infant massage is a multisensory experience: they smell their caregiver (sense of smell), feel the stroke (sense of touch), listen to the caregiver’s reassuring voice (sense of hearing) and look around to see who is touching them (sense of sight). Babies then have to piece all these information together, helping them to integrate their under-develop sensory systems secondary to prematurity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disclaimer: The information and advice contained in or made available through this website is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the services of a health professional/physiotherapist or to be a substitute for medical advice of physicians.
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