Physiotherapy is the treatment of body using the body’s self healing abilities. The healing is enhanced through specific treatment after detailed assessment by the physiotherapist to diagnose the root of problem.
Physiotherapy, like medicine, have different areas of sub-specialization. The commonly known ones are:
Other areas of specialization are:
- women’s health
In the field of paediatric physiotherapy, physiotherapists are trained to understand in-depth and treat a wide range of childhood conditions ranging from musculoskeletal to neurological problems. Paediatric Physiotherapist understands that children learn through play, thus, will design activities to make therapy fun. Not everyone can work with kids hence paediatric physiotherapist have that ‘special touch’ on children!
What are the conditions seen by paediatric physiotherapist?
These are the common conditions seen by paediatric physiotherapist:
- Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV)
- Congenital talipes calcaneovalgus (CTCV)
- Post fracture rehabilitation
- Hip dysplasia
- Poor posture
- Sports injury
- Pes planus (flat foot)
- Abnormal gait
- Intoeing/pigeon toe
- Tip toeing
- Cerebral palsy
- Brain injury
- Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
- Early intervention for
- Premature baby
- Metabolic disorders
- Heart conditions
- Any congenital condition resulting in long hospital stay with high risk of delay
- Gross Motor delay
- Developmental Coordination Disorder
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
- Global development delay
- Post surgery rehabilitation
- Chest Physiotherapy
- ICU- airway secretions clearance
- Chronic lung disease
- Cystic fibrosis
- Weight management
A newborn’s movement is controlled mainly by reflexes. The reflexes include asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR), Moro, rooting, sucking and swallowing reflex.
Due to the position in womb over 40 weeks, a newborn adopts a fetal posture. In lying, the arms and leg are held close to the body. On the tummy, the infant head is turned to one side, the buttocks are humped up and knees are flexed under the abdomen.
3 months old
The primitive reflexes are gradually disappearing while the baby gains more control over their neck and shoulder muscles. When lying on the back, the baby has enough neck strength to hold the head in midline. During pull to sit, there is little or no head lag. The baby is also beginning to understand his body, able move all 4 limbs symmetrically, bringing hands to midline for finger play. When lying on tummy, the baby can lift head and upper chest well off the bed, weight-bearing on forearm with buttocks flat on bed.
6 months old
Over the months, the baby has developed enough trunk and abdomen strength to roll from front toback and back to front. When lying on the back, the baby can raise his head to look at feet and bring the feet to mouth for exploration. At 6 months, the baby start sitting with support, balancing himself with his hands. When held standing, the baby weight bear well on both feet and bounces up and down actively.